This article is about generations of computer from basic to advanced level. It contains the general knowledge and useful information about computer.Let’s learn about this lesson.
First generation (1951-1959):
In 1951 with the development of UNIVAC-I the first generation was getting started. At this time the computer system follows those properties;
- Vacuum tube was the main part of it.
- To give input into the system there was a punch card assign to it.
- For output paper and punch card was used.
- Magnetic tape used as an external storage unit.
- Human dependent for log into any switch.
- Machine language and assembly language are used as programming language.
Example: UNIVAC-I, IBM 650 etc.
Second generation (1959-1965):
In 1948 the scientist of bell telephone laboratories invents transistor. At this generation the computer system follows these properties.
- Electrical transistor was the main device at that time.
- Punch card and magnetic tape use for data input.
- Human help needed for managing punch cards.
- For output paper and punch cards are used.
- Magnetic tape was the external storage device.
- FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, PL/1 etc. are the programming languages of those computers.
IBM 1400, IBM 7000, Honeywell 2000, General electric 635 etc.
Third generation (1965-1971):
At this era IC (Integrated circuit) used in the system and Hardware getting much better at this generation. The computer system follows those properties;
- IC (Integrate circuit) was the main part.
- Keyboard used for data input.
- Monitor used for output.
- Magnetic tape used as external storage unit.
- Multitasking programming environment and better OS (Operating system).
- Not dependent on human. In this generation the term “Computer family” getting started.
- RPG (Report Program Generator), PASCAL, FORTRAN (Advanced) and COBOL used as programming languages.
Fourth generation (1971-till today):
LSIC (large Scale Integrated circuit) and VLSIC (Very large Scale Integrated circuit) brings an important change into the hardware and software systems of fourth generation computer. Here a small LSIC chip can perform the task of many transistors. The properties of fourth generation computer are;
- LSIC AND VLSIC are the main units of the computer System.
- Advanced devices are used to transfer data.
- Advanced magnetic disk (Storage space is much higher) used as external storage unit.
- Virtual storage space getting started in this era.
- Advanced software system build to mark with huge data.
This generation not yet started. Scientists are thinking of making an integrated environment with computer system and Artificial Intelligence.